Acknowledgements

POSSIBLE CAUSES FOR PLANT NUTRIENT LEVELS BELOW OR ABOVE THE SUFFICIENCY RANGE


NITROGEN (N)
 

Below Sufficiency Range

Above Sufficiency Range

Inadequate nitrogen fertilization

Low nitrification rate or perhaps denitrification

Excessive leaching of nitrates

Low soil phosphorus level

Drought

Excessive nitrogen fertilization

High rate of nitrification at the time sample was taken

Shortage of other elements


PHOSPHORUS (P)
 

Low soil phosphorus level or inadequate phosphorus fertilization

Wet soils

Low soil temperatures, especially early season

Low soil pH (<5.5) or high soil pH (>7.2)

Drought

High soil phosphorus level or excessive application of phosphate fertilizers

Excessive application of animal manures


POTASSIUM (K)
 

Low soil potassium level or inadequate potassium fertilization

Excessive nitrogen application

Cold wet soils

Drought

High soil potassium level or excessive application of potassium fertilizers


CALCIUM (Ca)
 

Low soil calcium level (can be due to low soil pH or highly leached low exchange capacity soils

High soil potassium levels or heavy application of potassium fertilizers

High soil nitrogen availability

Drought

Nematode damage

Diseased or dead tissue

Old plant tissue


MAGNESIUM (Mg)
 

Low soil magnesium level

Low soil pH

Contiunuous use of hi-calcium lime on marginally low magensium soils

High soil potassium levels or application of potassium fertilizers

High nitrogen application rates

Cold wet soils especially early in the growing season

Diseased or dead tissue

Old plant tissue


SULFUR (S)
 

Low available soil sulfur level

Excessive amounts of nitrogen on low organic matter soils

Inadequate sulfur fertilization or excessive leaching of sulfates

Excessive available soil sulfate level from natural or applied sources


BORON (B)
 

Low availability due to high soil pH, highly leached sandy soils, or low organic matter soils

Imporper boron fertilization

High nitrogen fertilization

Drought

Excessive or improper boron fertilization


COPPER (Cu)
 

Low soil availability resulting form high soil pH, high organic matter content, high concentrations of iron or manganese or highly leached coarse textured soils

High soil copper content resulting from previous applications of copper-based fungicides or from continued use of high copper containing animal manures


IRON (Fe)
 

High soil pH

Excessive zinc, phosphate, copper or manganese availability

Reduced soil conditions from very wet or flooded soils

Zinc deficiency

Soil or dust contamination on leaves


MANGANESE (Mn)
 

Naturally low soil manganese levels

Low availability due to high soil pH (6.3 or above on very sandy or Atlantic flatwood soils; 6.5 or above on other soils) high organic matter soils, high soil moisture, and very low organic matter soils

High nitrogen or phosphorus applications on acid low organic matter soils

Low soil pH

Soil or dust contamination on leaf surface

Contamination from long term use of Mn-based fungicides


ZINC (Zn)
 

Low soil zinc content

Low soil availability due to highly leached soils, high soil pH, high available soil phosphorus levels, cut areas with low organic matter contet, and certain muck soils

Cool wet growing conditions especially during early growth stages

High soil zinc levels (e.g. long term use of Zn on corn; corn grown on old peach or pecan groves; application of certain by-products)

Contamination from brass or galvanized equipment

High copper and manganese soil levels


ALUMINUM (Al)
 

Cannot be deficient. Not an essential element

Low soil pH

Reduced conditions associated with wet or flooded soils

Soil or dust contamination on leaves

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